With your background research plan in hand, you will find sources of information that will help you with your science fair project. As you find this information it will be important for you to write down where the sources are from. You can use the Bibliography Worksheet to help you, just print out a few copies and take them with you to the library. As you find a source, write in all of the necessary information. The more information you write down about your source, the easier it will be for you to find if you want to read it again.
When you are writing your report, you will use the sources in your bibliography to remind you of different facts and background information you used for your science fair project. Each time you use some information from a source, you will need to cite the source that it came from. If the person reading your report wants to find the information and read more about it, they can look up the reference in your bibliography for more detail about the source.
That is why each source you use must be listed in a detailed bibliography with enough information for someone to go and find it by themselves. Your bibliography should include a minimum of three written sources of information about your topic from books, encyclopedias, and periodicals. You may have additional information from the Web if appropriate. There are standards for documenting sources of information in research papers.
Even though different journals may use a slightly different format for the bibliography, they all contain the same basic information. Different types of sources have different formatting in the bibliography.
Science Buddies has summarized some of the most common MLA formats for your use: There is further good information here. Theory and International Application. Kuzuhara, Kenji, et al. Gale Health Reference Center Academic , i. When citing a website, individuals are often actually citing a specific page on a website. Last name, First name of author. The Rise of Big Data in the Classroom. There are a variety of ways to cite an image. This section will show how to cite a digital image found on a website and an image in print.
Last name, First name of the creator if available. Do not place the description in quotation marks or italics. In addition, only capitalize the first letter in the description and any proper nouns. Identify Undervalued Players and Team Offenses.
Wondering how to cite an image found through a search engine, such as Google? Cite the image using the information from the original site. They can be found on the cover of the magazine and on the article itself:. On the cover of most magazines, you can find the title of the magazine as well as the date the magazine was published. If the article appears on nonconsecutive pages, include the page number for the first page the article is found on, and then add a plus sign after it. Ernest Hemingway, Revised and Revisited.
An essay is an analytic writing piece that is generally short in length compared to books and journal articles and focuses on a specific topic or subject. Citing an essay is similar to citing a chapter in a book or a story in an anthology. Include the name of the individual author or the group of authors, the title of the essay placed in quotation marks , the title of the book, collection, or site the essay is found on in italics , the name of the editor if there is one , the volume and issue number if they are available , the publication date, and the location.
The location can be either a page range or a URL. Click here for additional information on essays. Check to see if the the PDF is written by an individual, set of authors, or an organization or company.
Continue with the title of the PDF, version if there are different versions available , the publisher only include if the name of the publisher is different than the name of the author or the title , the publication date, and the location usually a URL if found online.
Notice that in the example below, the name of the publisher The American Podiatric Medical Association is omitted since the name of the publisher is the same name as the author. American Podiatric Medical Association. The Real Cost of Diabetes: Click here for more on PDFs. Last name, First name of the author or Last name, First name, editor. Title of the Textbook. Version, Publisher, Year published. Cherny, Nathan, et al.
Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine. Last name, First name of the chapter author. Surveys can be found online or in print. International Food Information Council Foundation. Our website will help you develop your works cited page and in text and parenthetical citations in just a few clicks.
Check out this article to see it in the news. When it comes to formatting your paper or essay for academic purposes, there are specific guidelines to follow.
The section that follows will answer the following questions: This heading is featured at the top of the first page of the research paper or research assignment. If your instructor or professor does in fact require or ask for a title page, follow the directions that you are given.
They should provide you with the information needed to create a separate, individual title page. If they do not provide you with instructions, and you are left to create it at your own discretion, use the header information above to help you develop your research paper title page.
You may want to include other information, such as the name of your school or university. It contains a list of all of the citations of sources used for the research project.
Hong Kong Secondary Music Education, Periodicals Index Online , search-proquest-com. Plagiarism and Grammar Checker. Auto-fill mode Manual entry mode. How to Be a Responsible Researcher or Scholar: What is a Citation? Why Does it Matter? Scroll down to find directions on how to create citations. Why do we use this style? How is the new version different than previous versions?
Other changes were made as well. Use quotes from outside sources to help illustrate and expand on your own points, but the majority of your paper should be your own writing and ideas. Include the quote exactly as you found it. It is okay to pull and use only certain words or phrases from the quote, but keep the words spelling and capitalization and punctuation the same. It is acceptable to break up a direct quote with your own writing The entire paper should be double spaced, including quotes.
If the quote is longer than four lines, it is necessary to make a block quote. Block quotes show the reader that they are about to read a lengthy amount of text from another source. Start the quote on the next line, half an inch in from the left margin Do not use any indents at the beginning of the block quote Only use quotation marks if there are quotation marks present in the source If there is more than one paragraph in the block quote, start the next paragraph with the same half inch indent Add your in-text citation at the end of the block quote.
Start the citation with the name of the author who wrote the information on the page. Start the citation with the title. The title of the individual page is placed in quotation marks, followed by a period. Next, place the name of the website in italics, followed by a comma.
The date the page or website was published comes next. End the citation with the URL. When including the URL, remove http: Since most websites begin with this prefix, it is not necessary to include it in the citation. The name of the magazine The date the magazine was published The title of the magazine article The name of the author of the article The page or page range the article is found on. If found online or in a book, include the title of the website or book after the title.
After the title, it is acceptable to include the name of the interviewer. Include the publisher if it is a published interview and if it differs from any other information already found in the citation. Include the date that the interview was either published or the date that the interview occurred. If found online, include the URL.
If the encyclopedia is well known and articles are arranged alphabetically, it is not necessary to indicate the volume and page numbers. If the encyclopedia is not well known, you must give full publication information including author, title of article, title of encyclopedia, name of editor or edition, number of volumes in the set, place of publication, publisher and year of publication. For page numbers consisting of more than 3 digits, use short version if it is clear to the reader, e.
Note also that there is no period after the month. If there are 4 or less letters in the month, e. May, June, and July, the months are not abbreviated. If the publication date is July 18, , citation will be 18 July Where a newspaper title does not indicate the location of publication, add the city of publication between square brackets, e. Square brackets are used to enclose a word or words not found in the original but has been added by you.
The above citation shows: If the article is accessed online, add Access date and URL at the end. Mohanty, Subhanjoy, and Ray Jayawardhana.
Thomas, Cathy Booth, and Tim Padgett. Wolanski, Eric, et al. Suggested citation example from SIRS: Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. Example in MLA style: Put in square brackets [ ] important information you have added that is not found in the source cited. Your Canadian Financial Planning Software. May use short forms: Edition, Editor, or Edited , Comp. Views from Within , comp.
Master of Dreams , by Diane Waldman. Toronto-Central West Edition , Companies Even Get a Bonjour? When citing a definition from a dictionary, add the abbreviation Def. Short forms may be used, e. You may add other information as deemed pertinent between the title and the distributor. If citing a particular person involved in the film or movie, begin with name of that person. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. Based on book by Roald Dahl. Paula Weinstein, Chris Bender, and J. Jennifer Lopez and Jane Fonda.
Based on Nurse Matilda Books Writ. Twentieth Century Fox and Paramount, Williams, and Adam Schroeder. Jackie Chan and Jennifer Love Hewitt. Cite government document in the following order if no author is stated: Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development.
National Council on Disability. GPO, July 31, For examples on how to cite more complicated government documents, please see Section 5. Internet citation for an article from an online database e. SIRS, eLibrary , study guide, magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, newspaper, online library subscription database service, or an article in PDF with one or more authors stated.
Internet citation for an article from an online magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated. Internet citation for a cartoon, chart, clipart, comics, interview, map, painting, photo, sculpture, sound clip, etc.
Internet citation for an e-mail email from an individual, a listserver, an organization, or citation for an article forwarded from an online database by e-mail. Internet citation for an online project, an information database, a personal or professional Web site. Internet citation for a work translated and edited by another Basic components of an Internet citation: Skip any information that you cannot find anywhere on the Web page or in the Web site, and carry on, e.
Generally, a minimum of three items are required for an Internet citation: If the URL is too long for a line, divide the address where it creates the least ambiguity and confusion, e.
Do not divide a term in the URL that is made up of combined words e. Never add a hyphen at the end of the line to indicate syllabical word division unless the hyphen is actually found in the original URL.
Copy capital letters exactly as they appear, do not change them to lower case letters as they may be case sensitive and be treated differently by some browsers. Remember that the purpose of indicating the URL is for readers to be able to access the Web page.
Accuracy and clarity are essential. SIRS, eLibrary , study guide, magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, newspaper, online library subscription database service, or an article in PDF with one or more authors stated: Machado, Victoria, and George Kourakos.
Public Policy Forum, Why Valid Code Matters. Indicate page numbers after publication date if available, e. Leave out page numbers if not indicated in the source. If citing the above source but information is obtained from accessing eLibrary at home, leave out the location of the school.
Internet citation for an article from an online encyclopedia: Internet citation for an article from an online magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated: A Dragon Economy and the Abacus. Internet citation for an article in a scholarly journal: Internet citation for a cartoon, chart, clipart, comics, interview, map, painting, photo, sculpture, sound clip, etc.: Kersten, Rick, and Pete Kersten.
State Historical Society of Wisconsin. Internet citation for an e-mail email from an individual, a listserve, an organization, or citation for an article forwarded from an online database by e-mail: Internet citation for an online government publication: Modernizing Accountability Practices in the Public Sector.
National Archives and Records Administration. The Bill of Rights. Internet citation for an online posting, forum, letter to the editor: Internet citation for an online project, an information database, a personal or professional Web site: Washington U School of Medicine.
Automatic works cited and bibliography formatting for MLA, APA and Chicago/Turabian citation styles. Now supports 7th edition of MLA.
A bibliography is a listing of the books, magazines, and Internet sources that you use in designing, carrying out, and understanding your science fair project. But, you develop a bibliography only after first preparing a background research plan — a road map of the research questions you need to answer.
An Article in an Online Scholarly Journal. For all online scholarly journals, provide the author(s) name(s), the name of the article in quotation marks, the title of the publication in italics, all volume and issue numbers, and the year of publication. Include a URL, DOI, or permalink to help readers locate the source. Start writing your bibliography. The format for each entry on the bibliography for Internet sources starts with the name of the author of the article. This name of the author is written with the last name first, a comma followed by the first name.
BibMe Free Bibliography & Citation Maker - MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard. A bibliography, by definition, is the detailed listing of the books, journals, magazines, or online sources that an author has used in researching and writing their work.