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# Writing a Results Section

## 7 thoughts to “Presenting Your Dissertation Results & Discussion”

❶Search over articles on psychology, science, and experiments. Taking the time to properly sort your data is also important because the most relevant pieces of information need to take priority in your Results section, so a first step would be properly organizing all available information.

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However, if the test is significant, the assumption has been violated and you need to report instead the Welch statistic, associated degrees of freedom, and significance value which you will see in your output; for example, see PICTURE 3 above. The output will tell you which comparisons are significant. Reporting the results of ANCOVA ANCOVA, or the analysis of covariance, is used when you want to test the main and interaction effect of categorical variables on a continuous dependent variable, while controlling for the effects of other continuous variables or covariates.

For instance, you will use ANCOVA when you want to test whether relationship status categorical independent variable with three levels: You need to report the F values, degrees of freedom for each variable and error , and significance values for both the covariate and the main independent variable.

For this, you need to conduct planned contrasts and report the associated significance values for different comparisons. For instance, you would use MANOVA when testing whether male versus female participants independent variable show a different determination to read a romantic novel dependent variable and a determination to read a crime novel dependent variable.

These tests assess two assumptions: Both tests need to be non-significant in order to assess whether your assumptions are met. If the tests are significant, you need to dig deeper and understand what this means. Following this, you need to report your descriptive statistics, as outlined previously. Here, you are reporting the means and standard deviations for each dependent variable, separately for each group of participants.

You will notice that you are presented with four statistic values and associated F and significance values. These statistics test whether your independent variable has an effect on the dependent variables. You report the results in the same manner as reporting ANOVA, by noting the F value, degrees of freedom for hypothesis and error , and significance value.

However, you also need to report the statistic value of one of the four statistics mentioned above. Finally, you need to look at the results of the Tests of Between-Subjects Effects which you will see in your output. These tests tell you how your independent variable affected each dependent variable separately.

Before reporting the results of your qualitative research, you need to recall what type of research you have conducted. The most common types of qualitative research are interviews, observations, and focus groups — and your research is likely to fall into one of these types. All three types of research are reported in a similar manner. Still, it may be useful if we focus on each of them separately. You have asked your participants questions that explored why they started smoking, why they continue to smoke, and why they wish to quit smoking.

Since your research was organised in this manner, you already have three major themes: You then explore particular reasons why your participants started to smoke, why they continue to smoke, and why they want to quit. Each reason that you identify will act as a subtheme. When reporting the results, you should organise your text in subsections.

Each section should refer to one theme. Then, within each section, you need to discuss the subthemes that you discovered in your data. What you need to do now is to present the findings for each subtheme, while also reporting quotes that best describe your subtheme. You do that for each theme and subtheme. It is also good practice to make a table that lists all your themes, subthemes, and associated quotes.

Several participants noted that they started smoking because they thought smoking was cool. I was shy and I always wanted to be more noticed. Reporting the results of observations If your research has relied on observations, then your task was to observe a particular behaviour in a particular setting.

When reporting the results, you first need to categorise your observations. For instance, you might have noticed that the therapist finds it important to discuss: You can consider these as themes in your observations. Accordingly, you will want to report each theme separately.

You do this by outlining your observation first this can be a conversation or a behaviour that you observed , and then commenting upon it. Was there something that stressed you out during the last few months? I thought I would lose my job, but that passed. After that, I was breaking up with my girlfriend. But between those things, I was fine. And was there any difference in your symptoms while you were and while you were not stressed?

Now that I think of it, they were mostly present when I went through those periods. Instead, she has guided him, through questions, to connect his symptoms to stress. This seems beneficial because the patient has arrived at the link between stress and symptoms himself.

Reporting the results of focus groups Focus groups are similar to interviews, except that they are conducted with a group of people rather than with one individual at a time.

Accordingly, the analysis of data obtained through a focus group is similar to the analysis of interview data. You may find it useful to read the above section on reporting the results of interviews.

You have transcribed your focus group sessions and have extracted themes from the data. You have discovered a wide variety of reasons why people prefer one of the two drinks. When reporting your results, you should have two sections: Within each section, you need to identify specific reasons for these preferences. You should connect these specific reasons to particular quotes. The first reason why some participants favoured Schweppes over Coca-Cola is that Schweppes is considered as less sweet.

Several participants agreed on this notion. Another participant agreed by noting: A glass of cold Schweppes is much more refreshing. As we have seen, writing up qualitative results is easier than writing quantitative results. Yet, even reporting statistics is not that hard, especially if you have a good guide to help you. Hopefully, this guide has reduced your worries and increased your confidence that you can write up the results section of your dissertation without too many difficulties.

Recent Posts How often should you reference? A great example of a reflective essay How to write a captivating conclusion to your essay How to write a dissertation literature review: How to structure an essay Top 10 essay referencing tips. The Ultimate Guide to Writing a Dissertation. Writing up the results section of your dissertation. T So the second Thesis is the whole sentence. Always write the discussion for the reader; remember that the focus should be to help the about what you will write in the discussion section from.

The results chapter is an integral part of any dissertation research. What do your data Presenting new results; such data belong in the results section. Many students confuse findings with discussion and it is important to keep them separate.

Report your results — HDR — Write the thesis The purpose of the results section of the thesis is to report the findings of your research.

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