Atoms and the periodic table - a six-chapter first-year level treatment of basic quantum theory, atomic spectra, electron configurations, chemical periodicity and the organization of the periodic table. Introduction to the electronic structure of atoms and molecules - a well-organized series of pages which extend into chemical bonding. Alfred Bader, McMaster U.
Primer on Quantum Theory of the Atom - A set of in-frequently asked questions in the form of a quantum catechism. Atomic orbital visualization - see the The Orbitron: What is an orbital? The Mystery of Matter: Search for the Elements - This PBS video " is an exciting three-part series about one of the great adventures in the history of science: All about chemical bonding Steve Lower, SFU - this part site provides in-depth coverage of everything you need to know about molecular structure and bonding at the General Chemistry level.
Includes separate sections on polar covalence, VESPR, hybrid orbitals, molecular orbitals, coordination complexes and metals. Models of chemical bonding - Do chemical bonds really exist?
Nobody has ever "seen" one, so the best we can do is construct models. Here is a brief summary of those you should know about. Covalent, ionic, or what? Coming to terms with covalent, ionic, and metallic bonding, and with mixtures thereof. Guaranteed to give you more insight to this than your textbook does!
The electron-tunneling model of chemical bonding How can those electron-dot diagrams showing shared electrons happily sitting between the nuclei be consistent with the principle that opposite charges attract? The model described here is the simplest one that really explains bonding, but you are unlikely to find it in any textbook!
All about Electrochemistry - An in-depth, comprehensive treatment Steve Lower. Baird of Brown Univ. Includes numerous examples of application of kinetic molecular theory and a section on real gases.
Part of the Chem1 Virtual Textbook. Interactions between molecular units - this tutorial for first-year students looks at ionic-, van der Waals attractions, and the universal repulsive force, and how these lead to potential energy curves. Chemical Kinetics and Dynamics - An introduction to rates of reaction, rate laws, half-life, activation energy, the Arrhenius equation, and reaction mechanisms.
Kinetics Explorer - an introduction to the study of chemical kinetics based on the exploration of dynamic phenomena. Includes some good simulations. Online kinetics simulator from Gary Bertrand. The mole concept, calculations based on formulas and equations - these three chapters of the Chem1 Virtual Textbook provide in-depth treatment at an elementary level.
Atomic, molecular and formula masses or "weights" - a nice tutorial, with built-in quiz, for beginning students. Balancing Chemical Equations - this ChemTeam site provides numerous links and drills. The fall of the electron. How to predict the direction of oxidation-reduction reactions. Discussion of the activity series of the elements and of oxidation-reduction in metabolism. ChemTeam lessons on oxidation-reduction.
This Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory site allows you to explore the world of fundamental particles and forces and then to investigate the experimental evidence and techniques.
What few people realized — and the Curies were reluctant to admit — was the great harm this radioactive element could do. For periodic table T-shirts, neckties, etc.
Eric Scerri, author of The Periodic Table: The Periodic Table of Videos - This is not just another periodic table, but a huge resource that has expanded to include more than videos, mostly quite short. At its simplest, you just click on an element, and watch a two-minute video that describes the element and its uses. There is also a larger series of " Molecular Videos " that describes different chemical substances and their uses — all designed to convey the fascination of Chemistry.
Chinese periodic tables - Yes, there are such things! The Photographic Periodic Table of the Elements - the home page features photographs of or related to the elements, but it includes "many thousands of pages of text, stories, pictures, and data" by Theodore Gray.
Periodic Table mnemonic song -. Periodic Table of Poetry "Chemistry and poetry together as never before. If gems like this fascinate you, have a look at this site, which is all about the origins of the element names, not just in English, but in 97 different languages.
Periodic Table of Haiku - for those who find elements lyrical. WebElements Sheffield, UK The elements in this online periodic table are linked to an extensive variety of chemical and physical data as well as background, crystallographic, nuclear, electronic, biological and geological information. You can ever hear how the Brits prounounce the name of the element!
How to avoid telling lies with numbers. Provides an understandable, in-depth explanation with many examples. Lower, Chem1 Virtual Textbook. It uses examples of nanotechnology and advanced materials to explore science and engineering concepts mainly at the college level, but there are also sections for K There are links to movies, lab experiments, kits including Lego nanobricks and instructional materials. Ionic and ion-derived solids - a detailed look at alkali halide energetics and structures, and extended structures.
Introduction to crystals - how the external forms of crystals relate to their internal structures. Cover the empirical laws of crystals, lattices and unit cells, Miller indices, and factors affecting growth habits.
Cubic crystal lattices and close packing - the origins of long-range order in solids. Face-centered and body-centered structures. Exploring Materials Engineering - links to a variety of sites relating to materials and polymer science. BuckyBalls Buckminsterfullerenes, those soccer-ball-like carbon structures. This Nanotechnology Now site has a good overview of nanotubes and Buckyballs and many links. The outstanding site Macrogalleria covers the structures and properties of polymers in an uncommonly engaging way.
Lower, Simon Fraser University. Energy, enthalpy, and the First Law - a nice set of tutorials from Purdue U. The biggest, most powerful, most general idea in all of science. A lively, non-mathematical exposition of the way that entropy and activation energy battle it out in the world as we know it. By Frank Lambert of Occidental College. An alternative version , directed to non-science students and adults, is also available.
See also Shakespeare and Thermodynamics: Dam the Second Law , and Entropy is Simple If We Avoid the Briar Patches! Explains how the development and evolution of life is consistent with the principle that the entropy of the world never decreases.
All praise Lord Kelvin! A spoof cult site for the thermodynamically inclined. Units and dimensions for chemistry - includes charts showing the ranges of the scales such as length, mass, temperature, etc. Online unit conversions - Here are several useful ones: Units, measures and conversions information can be found at a number of sources: How do I solve it? Ask a Scientist - an online community for science, math and computer science teachers and students. The Chemistry Cluster is a Yahoo group where you can ask or answer!
Chemical Forums for students of Chemistry - a place where you can post questions and answers. There are separate forums for high school chemistry, college general chemistry, organic, analytical, physical nuclear and inorganic chemistry, and chemical biology, as well as others of more general interest. Registration is required, but it is free. ChemiCool forums is another site on which you can post questions and answers relting to General Chemisry and biochemistry as well as organic, theoretical and computational chemistry.
Cramster is another board for "chemistry help" with practice exams, textbook excerpts, and user-posted questions. Chemistry tutors for hire - You can use this WyzAnt site to search for local tutors, review profiles and qualifications, run background checks, and arrange for in-home lessons. Chemistry of Cleaning - a nice overview of the nature of "dirt" and the agents used to get rid of it. UK page How do detergents work?
Chemistry behind cleaning contains many useful links to other sites. Stain removal guide - How to remove just about every kind of stain you can think of. Links to topics from bread to pickles help enhance understanding ot the science behind food and cooking. Surfactants, builders, flllers, brightening agents to attract consumer dollars.
Food Science Videos - good collection of videos. More Food Chemistry sites: Gas pressure in a can of soda. The Chemistry of Egg Whites - an unusually well-done treatment of this topic. Structure of ice cream - all about the chemistry and physics of your favorite treat from the Dairy Science Faculty of the Unversity of Guelph Ontario, Canada.
Stain removal guide - here is something to make your parents regard you as a Chemistry expert! How to keep jewelry from discoloring your skin. Why does eating asparagus make your pee smell funny?
For information on other disgusting bodily fluids and odors, check out the Grossology site. Why is water blue? The Causes of Color section has pages on Why is water blue?
Why do leaves become brightly colored in the autumn? Why is the sky blue? An introduction to Rayleigh scattering. Science Knowledge Quiz - "Test your knowledge of science facts and applications of scientific principles by taking our short question quiz. Then see how you did in comparison with a nationally representative group of 3, randomly selected U. Foundations and applications - At first glance, this site appears to be just an A-Z index to a series of short definitions of the many topics it covers, but clicking on the name of the topic itself brings up a fairly detailed but anonymously composed description or exposition of the subject.
A series of handounts in Web page format describing how to approach General Chemistry problems. The original site is long gone, but this archived advice is still worth knowing!
The Alchemy Web Site - A very comprehensive source. This series appeared in Slate in mid What is chemistry good for? A nice rejoinder to those who accuse chemistry of polluting the world. How Bread Works - You probably eat bread every day. You may even know how to make your own bread. But have you ever thought about bread as a technology? Human Thermodynamics - this rather far-out site apparently seeks to relate chemical affinity to human interactions.
Measure Converter - conversion factors between SI and cgs units of all kinds, organized both by category and name of unit. Mineral Gallery - A good minerology site with information and excellent photos of a large number of minerals organized both by name and by classification.
All about pseudoscience, bad science, and pathological science. How to tell the difference from science. If you are interested in science, you ought to know something about the nonsense that is being flogged in the name of science.
The molecular basis of indicator color changes. A very well-done site with interesting graphics and lots of cross-links. Very readable and interesting, set at the "Scientific American" level and suitable for high school and introductory college courses. Boiling water without bubbles - an interesting article about the nanoparticles and the Leidenfrost effect. John Oliver on "scientific studies" and their reporting - A Last Week Tonight YouTube video on how and why media outlets so often report untrue or incomplete information as science.
General Chemistry Jeopardy games - a collection from U. Chemistry Trivia Quizzes - this site provides access to a variety of quizzes from different sources. Seiler, an Illinois high school teacher. Chemistry Joke-a-rama - guaranteed by the American Chemical Society to make you laugh. Molecules with silly or unusual or suggestive names - an amusing and informative site by Paul May of Bristol U UK that will likely have special appeal to teen males of all ages.
Science humor WebRing - some of it is pretty corny. All reactions can be classified as endothermic storing energy or exothermic releasing energy. This lesson reviews the ways in which reactions store and give off energy, including items like heat, light, and mechanical energy. Hydrolysis occurs when one adds water to a compound, which causes the compound to break apart into a cation and an anion.
Then, water can bond chemically with the substance, changing its chemical form. These reactions often take place when ionic compounds dissolve in water. Read on to learn more about the process of hydrolysis! When a reaction is in a state of dynamic equilibrium, the reaction is reversible. This means that, to maintain equilibrium, the products break apart to form the reactants. Read this lesson for more information on dynamic equilibrium!
Enthalpy is a state function that is measured in kilojoules per mole. Enthalpy is abbreviated as H in the Gibbs free energy equation: Enthalpy can help an observer discern whether a reaction is endothermic or exothermic based on the enthalpy having a positive or negative value. Read on to find out more about enthalpy! It is a spontaneous reaction that occurs naturally. Entropy measures the disorder of a system.
Read this lesson to learn more about entropy! Mass spectrometry is used to experimentally determine the molecular weight of a sample by ionizing a molecule and passing it through electrical and magnetic fields.
The observer would then note how the ionized compound responds, which correlates with the molecular weight in a quantifiable way. Read on to learn more about the intricate process of mass spectrometry! The Born-Haber cycle is a series of chemical processes that are used to calculate the lattice energy of ionic solids. Read on for a definition of lattice energy as well as examples of how the Born-Haber cycle is used to calculate lattice energy.
This page identifies different types of bonds, including covalent, polar covalent, ionic, and hydrogen. It explains how to draw compound structures by counting electrons and placing bonds accordingly. The Octet and Duet rules are also explained here. This page details how electrons are arranged in an atom, including information about the orbitals s, p, d, and f and how to easily tell which orbital an electron is in.
Electron delocalization can be really confusing! In order to understand this concept, one must learn about resonance, bonding, and aromaticity. Read on for more information about electron delocalization! The Aufbau principle describes how electrons fill energy levels in an atom. In order to write the electron configuration of an atom, one must know how the subshells fill.
Using the diagonal rule will certainly help with this process. Read on for more information about the Aufbau principle. Hybridization occurs when two atomic orbitals combine to form one hybrid orbital. One of the more common types of hybridization is sp 3 hybridization, which is described in detail in this lesson. Read on for more detailed information on the intricacies of electron orbitals. Electrolysis occurs in electrolytic cells when an electrical current causes a nonspontaneous oxidation-reduction reaction.
Read on for more information on the process of electrolysis! Voltaic cells use chemical energy to do electrical work. A redox reaction occurs, and the electrons are forced through an electrical circuit.
Read on to find out the specifics on how voltaic cells power electrical processes! The study of nuclear reactions is called radiation chemistry. A nuclear reaction involves the nucleus of an atom. These types of processes were first discovered by Marie Curie in the late s.
Read on for more details about radiation chemistry! Introduces carbon structures and interactions between molecules. Basic vocabulary and ideas are introduced concerning alcohols and hydrocarbons. Combustion of a hydrocarbon is also discussed briefly. Alkanes and alkenes are both hydrocarbons that follow the standard nomenclature procedures. Learn whether alkanes and alkenes are saturated or unsaturated, which is more reactive, and how to name a compound by looking at its structure in this lesson.
When aromatic compounds undergo reactions with electrophiles, a substitution reaction occurs. Read on for an in-depth description of how these reactions occur!
Halogenoalkanes are exciting because, compared to alkanes, they are very highly reactive when paired with nucleophiles or bases. Halogenoalkanes are also SP3 hybridized.
Read this lesson to find out more information on halogenoalkanes! This lesson also covers aldol condensation as well as the Robinson annulation reaction.
Read on for more details about these chemical processes. An elimination reaction occurs when a starting product breaks down into two new products that contain all the atoms of the original reactant. There are two types: Read this lesson for more information about elimination reactions.
Nucleophilic substitution reactions occur when a nucleophile interacts with an electrophile. Read this lesson for a step by step explanation of what happens during a nucleophilic substitution reaction. This lesson also covers nucleophilic substitution including the SN1 and SN2 mechanisms. Effects on kinetic rate, alkyl group, and more are discussed in this lesson. Because many students cannot and do not draw organic structures correctly, one of our most prominent chemistry tutors took the time to explain how to draw cyclohexane rings in great detail.
She even shows more than one way to get a perfect drawing of this ring. Read the lesson to find out how to draw these rings correctly! Stereoisomers are a category of isomers.
Although my choice of websites is overwhelmingly journal-oriented, learning about others' research is a good way of getting acquainted with chemistry and the variety of flavors in it.
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